Paul C. Painter, Professor, penn State UniversityMichael M. Coleman, Professor Emeritus, pen State University

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Comprehensive and accessible introduction to polymersFor undergraduates and also graduates in chemistry, engineering and materials scienceEquipped with reviews, problem sets, and other instructor materialsUseful reference likewise for professionalsAn necessary addendum for your school’s and also department’s library collectionFull shade figures, tables and also graphs transparent the text

This book is at as soon as an advent to polymers and also an imaginative invite to the ar of polymer science and engineering together a whole, including plastics and also plastics processing. Produced by two of the best-known scientists in America, the text explains and also helps students as well as professionals appreciate all major topics in polymer chemistry and also engineering: polymerization synthesis and kinetics, applications the probability theory, structure and also morphology, thermal and also solution properties, mechanically properties, biological properties and plastics processing methods.

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Essentials the Polymer Science and Engineering, designed come supersede many standard texts (including the authors’), is unique in a variety of ways. Distinct attention has been paid to explaining fundamentals and providing high-level visuals. In addition, the message is replete with engaging profiles of polymer chemists and their discoveries. The book explains the science of polymer engineering, and at the exact same time, tells the story of the field from its beginnings to the present, describe when and how polymer explorations have played a role in history and society.

The publication comes well equipped with examine questions and problems and also is suitable for a one- or two-semester course because that chemistry students at the undergraduate and also graduate levels.


Preface

Acknowledgements

1. INTRODUCTION

Preliminary RantWhat Is a Polymer?How big are Polymers?ClassificationThe Early history of PolymersSchonbein and Nitrated CelluloseParkes, Hyatt and also the ElephantsRegenerated CelluloseThe growth of Polymers and also the birth of Polymer SciencePolymer Materials: Boon or Bane?Are Plastics simply Cheap and also Nasty Materials?Traditional versus fabricated MaterialsDo classic Materials get a Break?Plastics, Energy and also the EnvironmentPolymers: No should ApologizeRecommended ReadingSome useful WebsitesStudy Questions

2. MICROSTRUCTURE and MOLECULAR WEIGHT

Polymer MicrostructureLinear and also Branched PolymersBranching TypesNetwork FormationCross-LinkingPolymer IsomerismCopolymersMolecular WeightMolecular load DistributionsDefinition of Number and also Weight typical Molecular WeightWhich median Molecular Weight?Recommended ReadingStudy Questions

3. POLYMER SYNTHESIS

IntroductionMajor ClassificationsCondensation ReactionsWhy execute Molecules React?Basic attributes of Step-Growth PolymerizationBasic attributes of addition PolymerizationStep-Growth PolymerizationsPolyestersPolyamides (Nylons)PolyurethanesTransesterificationNetwork FormationChain or addition PolymersFree Radical PolymerizationAnionic PolymerizationCationic PolymerizationCoordination PolymerizationMetallocene CatalystsLiving totally free Radical PolymerizationMonomer species for the different Polymerization MethodsPolymerization ProcessesSuspension PolymerizationEmulsion PolymerizationMultiphase ProcessesRecommended ReadingStudy Questions

4. POLYMERIZATION KINETICS

IntroductionChemical KineticsKinetics—A Superficial and Thoroughly Incomplete ReviewThe Reactivity the Chain MoleculesThe Kinetics the Step-Growth PolymerizationThe extent of Reaction (p)The Kinetics of Uncatalyzed PolyesterificationsThe Kinetics of catalyzed PolyesterificationsThe Kinetics of Chain PolymerizationsInitiationPropagationTerminationSummary of Kinetic EquationsThe Steady-State AssumptionThe price of PolymerizationThe Trommsdorff EffectConversionAverage Chain LengthChain TransferAnionic PolymerizationCationic PolymerizationRecommended ReadingStudy Questions

5. POLYMERIZATION: PROBABILITY and also STATISTICS

IntroductionProbability of an EventStatistics of linear PolycondensationNon-Stoichiometric EquivalenceChain StoppersThe Probability that a group has ReactedThe Probability of recognize an X-merThe Number and also Weight fraction of X-mersThe Number and also Weight circulation FunctionsThe Schulz-Flory DistributionPolydispersityStatistics that Chain PolymerizationsFree Radical PolymerizationIonic PolymerizationsLiving PolymerizationsBranching and GelationTheory that GelationThe a ParameterCritical value of alphaGelation: theory Versus ExperimentRandom Branching there is no Network FormationRecommended ReadingStudy Questions

6. COPOLYMERIZATION

IntroductionKinetics that Chain-Growth CopolymerizationFree Radical CopolymerizationTerminal ModelDeriving the Copolymer EquationThe Steady-State AssumptionReactivity RatiosComposition DriftDetermination that Reactivity RatiosThe Mayo-Lewis PlotThe Fineman-Ross PlotThe Kelen-Tudos PlotMonomer Reactivity and the Q-e SchemeCopolymer sequence DistributionsGeneral statistics RelationshipsConditional ProbabilityConditional Probabilities of various OrdersSome useful ParametersThe Number fraction Sequence of UnitsThe Number Average length of A (and B) RunsThe Run portion or NumberA measure up of the departure from RandomnessTerminal version RevisitedComposition together a role of ConversionPenultimate ModelTesting the ModelsRecommended ReadingStudy Questions

7. SPECTROSCOPY and also THE CHARACTERIZATION of CHAIN MICROSTRUCTURE

IntroductionSimple Harmonic MotionMolecular TransitionsMolecular Spectroscopy of PolymersInstrumentationInfrared SpectroscopyNMR Spectroscopy1H NMR13C NMRCharacterization the MicrostructurePolymer IdentificationBranchingSequence IsomerismStructural IsomerismTacticity in Vinyl PolymersPropagation MechanismsCopolymer AnalysisRecommended ReadingStudy Questions

8. STRUCTURE and MORPHOLOGY

IntroductionStates the MatterBonding and Intermolecular InteractionsConformationsThe number of Chain ConformationsThe Chain End-to-End DistanceRandom Walks and also Random FlightsReal ChainsThe Kuhn Segment LengthSelf-Avoiding WalksOrder and MorphologyOrdered Chain ConformationsChain Arrangements and MorphologyPolymer single CrystalsChain FoldingMelt CrystallizationSize and PropertiesCrystallization and also PropertiesFibersBlock CopolymersRecommended ReadingStudy Questions

9. Organic POLYMERS

IntroductionPolypeptides and also ProteinsProteins together CopolymersThe Amide BondAmino AcidsSome last Observations ~ above Polypeptide MicrostructureThe construction of Polypeptides and ProteinsThe Ramachandran PlotThe structure of SilkSpider SilkThe framework of CollagenThe structure of KeratinFinal words on Protein StructurePolysaccharidesThe structure of CelluloseEnergy warehouse Polysaccharides: Amylose, Amylopectin and also GlycogenChitinPoly(Nucleic Acids): DNA and also RNAIntroductionStructure of DNA and also RNARNA—More to Come?Recommended ReadingStudy Questions

10. CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING and also THE GLASS TRANSITION

IntroductionA Superficial and also Thoroughly Incomplete testimonial of ThermodynamicsThe laws of ThermodynamicsWhat is Thermodynamics?The ideal Gas LawsHeat, Work and EnergyEntropy and also the 2nd LawEnter the MoleculesThe Kinetic theory of GasesThe Maxwell circulation of VelocitiesEntropy RevisitedBoltzmann’s EquationFree EnergyThermal Transitions in PolymersCrystallizationThe price of CrystallizationThe Avrami EquationThermodynamic ConsiderationsCritical cell core SizeEquilibrium melt TemperaturePrimary NucleationHomogeneous and Heterogeneous NucleationSecondary NucleationLauritzen-Hoffman TheoryFold duration and Crystal expansion RateCrystallization RegimesKinetics of main CrystallizationSecondary CrystallizationThe Crystalline melting TemperatureMelting Temperature the Polymer CrystalsFactors that affect the melting TemperatureEffect of chemistry StructureEffect the Intermolecular InteractionsEntropy and also Chain FlexibilityEffect that SolventsEffect that “Defects” and Molecular WeightThe Glass change TemperatureGlassy Solids and the Glass TransitionFree VolumeFree Volume, Viscosity and also the Glass TransitionThermodynamic and Kinetic elements of the TgEffect of molecule WeightEffect of chemical StructureEffect the Cross-Linking and CrystallizationEffect that DiluentsRandom Copolymers and also BlendsRecommended ReadingStudy Questions

11. POLYMER SOLUTIONS and BLENDS

IntroductionEntropy of MixingMolecules of various SizesEnthalpy the MixingFlory’s chi ParameterThe Flory-Huggins EquationCohesive energy DensitySolubility ParametersGroup ContributionsPhase BehaviorThe critical Value of chiSome restrictions of the Flory-Huggins TheoryDilute SolutionsRecommended ReadingStudy Questions

12. Molecule WEIGHT and BRANCHING

IntroductionVirial EquationsOsmotic PressureLight ScatteringElectromagnetic FieldsOrigin of irradiate ScatteringLiquids and also SolutionsLight Scattering native PolymersLight Scattering from arbitrarily Coil PolymersZimm PlotsViscosityPoiseuille’s LawThe Viscosity the Polymer SolutionsIntrinsic Viscosity and also Molecular WeightViscosity typical Molecular WeightFrictional nature of Polymers in SolutionSize exclusion ChromatographyHydrodynamic VolumeThe universal Calibration CurveLong Chain BranchingLong-Chain Branching in PolychloropreneRecommended ReadingStudy Questions

13.

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MECHANICAL and also RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

IntroductionMechanical Properties—DefinitionsBackgroundAn next on UnitsPoisson’s RatioBulk ModulusShear ModulusShear forces in a product under TensionElastic nature of MaterialsHooke’s LawStress/Strain features of PolymersStiffnessTensile StrengthBrittle matches Ductile MaterialsSummary: Strength and also ToughnessStress/Strain attributes of PolymersYielding in PolymersRubber ElasticityThermodynamics RevisitedNetworksThe Mooney-Rivlin EquationPolymer Melt RheologyViscosityNewtonian and also Non-Newtonian FluidsEntanglements and also the Dynamics of Polymer ChainsReptationMelt flow at High Shear RatesViscoelasticityCreepStress RelaxationDynamic mechanically AnalysisTime-Temperature EquivalenceViscoelastic Behavior: Amorphous PolymersRelaxation in Amorphous PolymersViscoelastic Behavior: Semi-Crystalline PolymersMechanical and Theoretical ModelsViscoelastic Behavior: straightforward ModelsThe Maxwell ModelThe Voigt ModelThe Four-Parameter ModelDistributions of Relaxation and Retardation TimesTime-Temperature Superposition PrincipleThe WLF EquationRelaxation procedures in the Glassy StateRelaxation procedures in Semi-Crystalline PolymersRecommended ReadingStudy Questions

14. PROCESSING

IntroductionExtrusionSingle Screw Extruders: HardwareSingle Screw Extruders: FunctionalitySingle Screw Extruders: ApplicationsTwin Screw Extruders: HardwareTwin Screw Extruders: FunctionsTwin Screw Extruders: ApplicationsInjection MoldingInjection Molding: FeaturesInjection Molding: ApplicationsInjection Molding VariationsHot RunnersInsert MoldingGas-Assisted Injection MoldingShear regulated Orientation Injection MoldingCo-Injection MoldingReaction Injection MoldingCompression MoldingTransfer MoldingBlow MoldingInjection punch MoldingStretch blow MoldingThermoformingRotational MoldingRecommended ReadingStudy Questions

Index