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To make review data in access easier to read and understand, take into consideration using a crosstab query. A crosstab query calculates a sum, average, or other aggregate function, and then teams the results by two sets of values— one collection on the side of the datasheet and also the other collection across the top. On the ribbon, click Create, and then in the Queries group, click Query Wizard. In the New Query dialog box, double-click Crosstab questions Wizard.

You are watching: The default query type for access is the crosstab query

If one collection of headings has date values, the wizard will aid you team the documents by traditional intervals – such as months or quarters.

In this article

Note: Crosstab queries aren’t available in an accessibility web apps, and also are only partially sustained in a web database: they can’t be supplied by any web objects.


A crosstab questions is a form of pick query. As soon as you run a crosstab query, the results display screen in a datasheet that has actually a different structure native other types of datasheets.

The framework of a crosstab query can make it less complicated to check out than a straightforward select ask that display screens the very same data, as presented in the following illustration.


1. This pick query groups review data vertically through employee and also category.

2. A crosstab query can display screen the same data, but groups the data both horizontally and also vertically so that the datasheet have the right to be much more compact and also easier to read.

When you produce a crosstab query, you specify which areas contain row headings, i m sorry field has column headings, and also which field includes values to summarize. You deserve to use just one field each as soon as you specify shaft headings and values come summarize. You deserve to use as many as three fields when friend specify heat headings.

You can likewise use one expression to develop row headings, obelisk headings, or worths to summarize. See SQL aggregate Functions for an ext information.


1. One, two, or three columns on this next contain heat headings. The names of the fields that you use as heat headings show up in the height row of this columns.

2. The row headings appear here. The variety of rows in the crosstab datasheet have the right to grow easily when you use much more than one heat heading field, because each mix of row headings is displayed.

3. The columns top top this side contain tower headings and an overview values. Note that the surname of the obelisk heading field does not show up on the datasheet.

4. Summary values appear here.

Methods for creating your crosstab query

Use the Crosstab ask Wizard The Crosstab query Wizard is usually the fastest and also easiest way to create a crosstab query. The does many of the work-related for you, but there are a couple of options that the wizard does no offer.

The wizard has actually these benefits:

It is straightforward to use. To use it, you begin the wizard, and also then prize a series of guided questions.

It can instantly group dates into intervals. If you usage a field that contains date/time data for column headings, the wizard also helps you team the days into intervals, such together months or quarters.

Tip: If you desire to usage values from a Date/Time field for obelisk headings, yet want to team the days into intervals that the wizard does no provide, such as fiscal year or biennium, carry out not usage the magician to create your query. Instead, develop the crosstab query in design view, and also use an expression to produce the intervals.

It can be provided as a beginning point. You can use the magician to produce the straightforward crosstab query the you want, and then fine-tune the query"s architecture by using style view.

However, by making use of the wizard, girlfriend cannot:

Use an ext than one table or query together a document source.

Use one expression to produce fields.

Add a parameter prompt.

Specify a list of resolved values to use as pillar headings.

At the last step of the wizard, friend can choose to change the ask in architecture view. This enables you to add query design elements the the wizard does no, together as additional record sources.

Work in design view style view enables you much more control over your query design. It discoverhotmail.coms the attributes that room not obtainable in the wizard.

Consider using architecture view to develop your crosstab questions if you want to:

Have much more control over the process. The wizard renders some decisions because that you.

Use an ext than one table or query together a record source.

Add a parameter notice to her query.

Use expression as fields in her query.

Specify a perform of resolved values to use as obelisk headings.

Practice using the architecture grid.

Write a questions in SQL view You deserve to write a crosstab query in SQL view, if girlfriend prefer. However, you cannot specify parameter data types by utilizing SQL view. If you desire to usage a parameter in your crosstab query, you must specify the parameter data kind by editing and enhancing your query in style view.

Tip: Remember — you room not restricted to using just one method for creating a crosstab query. You can use the magician to create the query, and also then use architecture view to modify the query design.

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Create a crosstab query by making use of the Crosstab questions Wizard

Using the Crosstab ask Wizard needs that you usage a single table or query as the record resource for your crosstab query. If a single table go not have all the data the you want to include in your crosstab query, start by creating a pick query that returns the data that you want. For much more information about creating a select query, describe the See Also section.

For this example, we"ll produce a crosstab query using the commodities table native the Northwind sample database. We want to screen a counting of the number of products in each category from every the suppliers.

On the Create tab, in the Queries group, click Query Wizard.

In the New Query dialog box, click Crosstab ask Wizard, and then click OK.

The Crosstab query Wizard starts.

On the an initial page the the wizard, select the table or query that you desire to use to produce a crosstab query. For this example, pick the Products table and also then click Next.


On the following page, select the field that consists of the worths that you desire to usage as row headings. You can choose up come three areas to use as heat headings sources, however the fewer row headings friend use, the less complicated your crosstab datasheet will certainly be to read. If friend choose an ext than one ar to supply heat headings, the bespeak in i beg your pardon you select the fields determines the default order in which your outcomes are sorted.

For this example, pick Supplier IDs.Value and also then click the switch labeled through a > symbol. Notice that access displays the ar name along the left side of the sample ask preview at the bottom that the dialog box. Click Next to continue.


On the next page, select the ar that includes the worths that you want to use as shaft headings. In general, girlfriend should pick a field that contains few values, to aid keep your outcomes easy to read. For example, making use of a ar that has only a couple of possible values (such as gender) can be preferable to making use of a field that have the right to contain plenty of different worths (such as age).

If the ar that you pick to usage for tower headings has actually the Date/Time data type, the wizard to add a step that allows you specify just how to group the days into intervals, such as months or quarters.

For this example, choose Category and notification that accessibility displays group sample names follow me the optimal of the sample ask preview in ~ the bottom the the dialog box. Click Next to continue.


If you pick a Date/Time ar for tower headings, the following page of the magician asks you come specify the term to usage to team the dates. You can specify Year, Quarter, Month, Date, or Date/Time. If you execute not pick a Date/Time field for shaft headings, the sorcerer’s skips this page.

On the following page, choose a field and a role to usage to calculate summary values. The data form of the field that you select determines which functions are available.

On the very same page, choose or clear the Yes, encompass row sums examine box to encompass or exclude row sums.

If you incorporate row sums, the crosstab query has second row heading that provides the same field and function as the field value. Consisting of a row sum inserts an additional column that summarizes the remaining columns. For example, if your crosstab questions calculates average period by location and gender (with gender column headings), the additional column calculates the average period by location, throughout all genders.

For this example, select ID in the Fields box and also Count in the Functions crate in order come have access count the variety of products in every intersection that supplier and category. Leave the Yes, include row sums inspect box selected. Accessibility will develop a column that totals the variety of products from every supplier. Click Next come continue.


On the last page of the wizard, type a name for her query and then specify even if it is you want to watch the outcomes or change the query design.

You can readjust the duty that is provided to develop row sums by editing the crosstab query in architecture view.

If you"ve walked v this instance using the commodities table from the Northwind database, the crosstab query screens the perform of supplier names together rows, the product classification names together columns, and also a counting of the variety of products in every intersection.


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By using design view to create your crosstab query, you have the right to use as numerous record resources (tables and also queries) together you want. However, you deserve to keep the design simple by first creating a select query the returns every one of the data that you want and then making use of that query as the just record source for your crosstab query. For an ext information about creating a pick query, describe the see Also section.

When you build a crosstab questions in style view, you usage the Total and also Crosstab rows in the design grid come specify which field"s values will end up being column headings, which fields" worths will become row headings, and also which field"s values to sum, average, count, or otherwise calculate.


1. The setups in these rows identify whether the field is a row heading, tower heading, or an overview value.

2. This setup displays the field"s worths as heat headings.

3. This setup displays the field"s values as column headings.

4. These settings create the summary values.

Create the query

On the Create tab, in the Queries group, click Query Design.

In the Show Table dialog box, double-click every table or query the you desire to usage as a document source.

If girlfriend use an ext than one document source, make certain that the tables or queries are joined on areas that they have in common. For much more information about joining tables and also queries, refer to the See Also section.

Close the Show Table dialog box.

On the Design tab, in the Query Type group, click Crosstab.

In the query style window, double-click each ar that you desire to use as a source of row headings. You can choose as numerous as three areas for row headings.

In the query design grid, in the Crosstab row for each heat heading field, select Row Heading.

You can get in an expression in the Criteria row to border the outcomes for the field. You can likewise use the Sort row to point out a type order for a field.

In the query style window, double-click the field that you want to usage as the source of obelisk headings. Friend can select only one field for shaft headings.

In the query style grid, in the Crosstab row for the column heading field, pick Column Heading.

You can enter an expression in the Criteria heat to border the results for the tower heading field. However, using a criteria expression with the shaft heading field does not limit the variety of columns reverted by the crosstab query. Instead, it boundaries which columns contain data. For example, mean you have a tower heading ar that has three possible values: red, green, and also blue. If you apply the default ="blue" to the tower heading field, the crosstab still display screens a pillar for red and a shaft for green, but only the column for blue consists of data.

If you want to border the worths that display screen as shaft headings, you have the right to specify a list of addressed values by using the query"s Column Headings property. For more information, check out the next section.

In the query style window, double-click the ar that you desire to usage to calculate an overview values. Girlfriend can select only one field to usage for an overview values.

In the query architecture grid, in the Total heat for the an introduction values field, choose an aggregate function to use to calculation the values.

In the Crosstab heat for the summary values field, pick Value.

You cannot specify criteria because that or sort on a an introduction values field.

On the Design tab, in the Results group, click Run.

Specify solved values for column headings

If you desire to specify fixed values to use for tower headings, you can set the query"s Column Headings property.

Open the crosstab ask in style view.

If the home sheet is no visible, press F4 to display it.

In the home sheet, just above the General tab, make certain that the Selection type is Query Properties. If it is not, click an north spot in the room above the query architecture grid.

In the residential or commercial property sheet, ~ above the General tab, in the Column Headings property, enter a comma-separated perform of worths that you desire to usage as tower headings.

Some characters (such as most punctuation marks) space not enabled in tower headings. If you use these personalities in your list the values, accessibility substitutes an underscore (_) because that each such character.

SQL syntax because that a crosstab query

A crosstab query is to express in SQL together a transform statement. A transform statement has actually the adhering to syntax:

TRANSFORM aggfunctionselectstatementPIVOT pivotfield >)>

The change statement has these parts:




An SQL aggregate function that operates on the selected data.


A pick statement.


The field or expression you desire to usage to develop column headings in the query"s an outcome set.

value1, value2

Fixed values used to produce column headings.

SQL see does no limit the variety of tables or queries that you have the right to use as record sources for a crosstab query. However, you can help keep the design basic by creating a select query that returns all of the data that you desire to usage in her crosstab query, and also then using that pick query as the document source. For much more information about creating a select query, refer to the See Also section.

On the Create tab, in the Other group, click Query Design.

Close the Show Table dialog box.

On the Design tab , in the Views group, click View, and also then click SQL View.

In the SQL object tab, form or paste the following SQL:

TRANSFORM select FROM group BY PIVOT ; on the first line, ~ TRANSFORM, form an expression to usage to calculate an introduction values; because that example, Sum().

If you are using an ext than one table or query as a document source, incorporate the table or query name as part of each ar name; because that example, Sum(.).

On the second line, after SELECT, form a list of areas or field expressions that you want to usage for heat headings. Separate the list items by using commas; for example, .<Dept_ID>, ..

On the third line, ~ FROM, type a list of the tables or queries that you room using as document sources; for example, Budget, Expense.

On the fourth line, after ~ GROUP BY, form the very same list of fields that you used in the pick clause, in action 6.

On the fifth line, after ~ PIVOT, kind a ar name or expression that you want to use for column headings; because that example, PIVOT .r>.

To include a type order to a crosstab ask in SQL view, use an order BY clause.

Insert a line in between the group BY clause and the PIVOT clause.

On the brand-new line, kind ORDER BY followed by a space.

Type the ar name or expression that you want to type on; for example, ORDER through .<Expense_Class>

By default, an stimulate BY clause sorts values in ascending order. If you want to type in to decrease order, type DESC ~ the ar name or expression.

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If you desire to type on second field or expression, kind a comma and then type the extr field surname or expression. Sorting wake up in the order the the fields or expressions show up in the stimulate BY clause.